About Blanchard Leadership Situational Theory
One of the most popular leadership theory is arranged by Blanchard and Hersey. This two theorist collaborated to create about leadership situational theory. Besides, each of them also arrange their own theory.
Here, we are talking about theory that created by Blanchard. It is usually known as Blanchard Leadership Situational Model or Theory. Before we explain about it, let we know about the leadership theory in general, like the situational theory.
The situational or contingency approach is based on the assumption that the success of a leader other than determined by the nature and behavior of the leader is also influenced by the situation that exists within the organization.
It is not only Blanchard that assume it. There are several leadership studies based on this approach, such as Fiedler's contingency leadership model, three-dimensional leadership theory and situational leadership theory.
This time we will discuss is the theory of leadership in the third form, the theory of situational leadership. This situational leadership theory was developed by Hersey and Blanchard, often referred to as blanchard leadership situational, or situational situational blanchard hersey.
Blanchard leadership situational theory developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard. The situational leadership according to Harsey and Blanchard is based on their interrelationship among the following:
- The number of instructions and directives given by the leadership,
- The amount of socio-emotional support provided by the leadership, and
- The degree of preparedness or maturity of followers indicated in the performance of specific tasks, functions or objectives certain.
Directive behavior is the level at which leaders organize subordinates, providing guidance on how tasks are carried out and closely supervising subordinates. Supportive behavior is how a leader engages with his subordinates and their involvement in decision making.
Maturity of the people is the ability possessed by the subordinates in completing the task of the leadership, including in it is the desire or their motivation in completing a task.
From directional and supportive behaviors will form the four basic styles of leadership that are high-style briefing and low-relation, high-style direction and high support, low-style direction and high relationships, and low-style briefing and low support.
According to this theory, blanchard leadership situational, the leader must be situational. It is mean that in every decision made based on the level of maturity of the subordinates. This is also means that the success of a leader is if they able to adaptable their style of leadership with the level of maturity or maturity of its crew.
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From this concept, it is described that level of maturity or maturity of subordinates can be divided into four levels, including :
- The first, instruction is for low-maturity followers, those who are incapable and willing to have responsibility for doing something are incompetent or have no faith.
- Second, consultations are for low to moderate maturity, people who are not able but willing to assume responsibility have confidence but lack skills.
- The third, participation is for the level of maturity from being modest, people at this level of development have the ability but are not eager to do any given task.
- The four, delegates are for a high degree of maturity, people at this level of maturity are capable and willing, or have the confidence to assume responsibility.
This theory was later refined by Ken Blanchard in 1985 to Situational leadership II with a model of the same name, blanchard leadership situational II. The model basically connects the ideal leadership style applied to a particular condition with the choice of condition.
Conditions in this theory is the implementation of employee development level or can be termed the level of maturity of subordinates.
The definition of the Employee development level is "the extent to which a person has mastered the skills necessary for the task at hand and has developed a positive attitude toward the task" (Blanchard et al., 1993).
It is mean that skills are important for each employee. Then the leader has the main task to develop this skill of employee. When the leader success, it s mean that he / she has proper criteria as a good leader.